Author Topic: Монголизмы в китайском языке  (Read 530 times)

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Offline enhd

  • Posts: 297
  • Mongolia
胡同 - Hútòng - alley, street - гудам, гудамж (происходит от худук - колодец)
衙门 - Yámén - government office - яам, яаман (происходит от jam-зам )

Таким образом определенное количество слов в китайском является оригин из монгольского.

И также слова в китайском со слогом "ху" в каком то предположении можно считать из северных варваров в фонетическом (похож по звучанию хотя бы с натяжкой) и в смысловом смысле (только имеет иероглиф "ху"-дикие и более ничего).
Мөнх тэнгэрийн хүчүн дор...

Offline Цитатель

  • Posts: 1896
衙门 - Yámén - government office - яам, яаман (происходит от jam-зам )

Сомнительно. Китайская этимология прозрачнее некуда, да и известны эти иероглифы в том же значении за тысячелетия до монголов.

А наиболее неоспоримо монгольское заимствование в китайском не упомянули

站 Zhàn

Quote
Generally considered to be a Mongolian influence in the Yuan Dynasty – an abbreviation of 站赤 (“post stations during the Yuan Dynasty”), from Middle Mongolian ᠵᠠᠮᠴᠢ (ǰamči, “post station”) (> Mongolian замч (zamč, “guide; cicerone”)), a derivative of Middle Mongolian ᠵᠠᠮ (ǰam, “way, path”) (> Mongolian зам (zam)).
Mongolian ǰam is undoubtedly cognate with Proto-Turkic *jam (“post station”) (> Turkish yam; ~ Russian ям (jam)) with the same meaning; see Yam (route). Starostin considers the Turkic form a descendant of Proto-Altaic *ńi̯àmi (“trace”) and related to Proto-Mongolian *ǯim ("path, trace"; > Mongolian ᠵᠢᠮ (ǰim) / жим (žim)). Also compare Turkish yamçı (“post rider”), Russian ямщи́к (jamščík, “drive, coachman”).
There is no scholarly consensus regarding the direction of borrowing. Generally it is believed that Turkic jam and Chinese zhàn are loanwords from Mongolian ǰam, however some (e.g. Tuymebayev in Казахско-монгольские лексические параллели) believe the directionality is reversed (i.e. Chinese "to stand > stand > station" → Middle Mongolian → Turkic → Russian). Whatever the etymology, what is apparent is that the word jam has been around for a long time and was used by Central Asians to designate a key postal relay station or official.
In Chinese, this word has been competing with the native equivalent 驛 (yì, “post station”) since its introduction. Mongol-ruled Yuan Dynasty saw the profusion of use of zhàn, which was deliberately suppressed in the succeeding Ming Dynasty in favour of yì. Both were used in the subsequent Qing Dynasty, with zhàn eventually predominating in the modern times, being used to render the sense of "station" in modern concepts, such as "train station".

 

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