Author Topic: Чжуанский язык - Vahcuengh  (Read 6516 times)

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Offline tmadi

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« on: November 1, 2008, 12:48 »
Купил Чжуанско-китайско-английский словарь, начал читать очерк о чжуанском языке и увлекся. Буду потихоньку выкладывать сюда главки из очерка. Переводить на русский не буду, благо все участники в той или иной степени владеют английским. Попробуем вместе познакомиться с этим языком.

« Reply #1on: November 1, 2008, 12:50 »
An Introduction to the Written Zhuang Language

The Zhuang language uses a phonemic writing system that employs the 26 letters of Roman alphabet. The northern dialect is taken as the basic dialect, and the way that each letter is pronounced in Wuming County is taken as the standard pronunciation for that letter. When written Zhuang is read aloud using these standard pronunciations, that is standard spoken Zhuang, and conversely, when the standard spoken language is put into written form, that is the written Zhuang language. A more detailed explanation of the phonemic writing system of the Zhuang language is given below.

« Reply #2on: November 1, 2008, 13:06 »
1. The Letters of Written Zhuang

The printed and written forms of Zhuang letters, and the names of the letters when the alphabet is recited, are shown on the following table. The names of the letters are not given in IPA; rather, the names are pronounced using the values of the letters in the written Zhuang language.

A a - a
B b - ba
C c - ca
D d - da
E e - e
F f - fe
G g - ga
H h - ha
I i - i
J j - ce
K k -ge
L l -le
M m -ma
N n -na
O o - o
P p - be
Q q - ciu
R r - ra
S s - se
T t - de
U u - u
V v - ve
W w - w
X x -ci
Y y -ya
Z z

Six of these 26 letters represent vowels. These are a, e, i, o, u and w. Sixteen of the letters represent consonants. These are b,c, d, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, r,s, t, v, and y. Three of these consonant letters, namely p, t and k, occur only at the end of a syllable. The consonants they represent are pronounced the same as b, d and g respectively. The two different series of letters are needed to signal a difference of tones in checked syllables. The letters which are used at the end of unchecked syllables to represent tone are j, q, x and z, and also the letter h. Note that the letter h also occurs syllable initially, in which case it represents a consonant. Al though these five tone letters are written at the end of the syllable, they do not represent a sound that is pronounced at the end of the syllable; rather, they represent the pitch contour for the entire syllable. Consonant letters that occur only syllable initially are c, f, l, r, v, and y; consonant letters that can occur either syllable initially or syllable finally are b, d, g,m and n.

« Reply #3on: November 1, 2008, 13:42 »
2. Tones in Zhuang

In Zhuang we refer to two types of tones: those on checked syllables (syllables ending in p, p, t, k, b, d or g), and those on unchecked syllables. Altogether there are six tones on unchecked syllables. Syllables that are in tone category 1, the most frequently occurring category, are written with no tone letter at the end of the syllable. Tones 2 through 6 are written using the tone letters z, j, x, q and h respectively.
As for checked syllables, there are basically two tones possible for this syllable type, a high tone and a low tone. For the high tone, however, if the vowel is long then the tone has a rising contour. If the vowel is short, then the tone is high level. The high tone of checked syllables, whether level or rising, is referred to as tone 7, and is indicated by the spelling of the final consonant with p, t or k, depending on its place of articulation. In contrast, syllables with the low tone, called tone 8, are spelled with a final b, d or g, depending on the place of articulation of the final consonant. Note that the pronunciation of the final consonant for both tone 7 and tone 8 is voiceless; the spelling difference between p, t, k and b, d, g reflects only the tone differences.
All of the tone categories are shown on the table below along with their tone values in the standard language, an example word, and the tone labels according to the Chinese system of ping-shang-qu-ru tone categories. For the convenience of foreign scholars, we also add to this table the tone letters A, B, C and D that were used by Li Fang Kwei's system of letters and that have been adopted by scholars for Proto-Thai tones.

Syllable typeProto-Thai categoryTone category numberZhuang spellingStandard valueExampleChinese tone category
Unchecked
A
1unmarked24son "teach"yin ping
Unchecked 2z31mwngz "you"yang ping
Unchecked
C
3j55hwnj "mount"yin shang
Unchecked 4x43max "horse"yang shang
Unchecked
B
5q35gvaq "cross"yin qu
Unchecked 6h33dah "river"yang qu
CheckedD short7 shortp, t, k55daep "liver"yin ru
CheckedD long7 longp, t, k35dap "tower"yin ru
CheckedD short8 shortb, d, g33daeb "bulid by stacking"yang ru
CheckedD long8 longb, d, g33dab "stack"yang ru

« Reply #4on: November 1, 2008, 14:09 »
3. Syllable Initial Sounds in Zhuang

There are 22 initials in standard Zhuang (This does not include the excrescent glottal stop that occurs before vowel-initial syllables. This glottal stop is not contrastive, and it is not written. This is just the same situation as in English.). These initials are listed below, along with the vowel, a or e that the Zhuang people use to pronounce these initials when reciting them.

Labialb(a)mb(e)m(a) f(e)v(e)
Alveolard(a)nd(e)n(a) s(e)l(e)
Palatalby(a)²gy(a)ny(a)my(a)c(a)y(a)
Velarg(a)gv(e)ng(a)ngv(e)h(a)r(a)

Some of the initials are spelled with more than one letter. The spelling mb represents a pre-glottalized voiced bilabial stop, and similarly the letter combination nd represents a pre-glottalized voiced alveolar stop. The spelling ng, however, does not represent a pre-glottalized stop; rather it represents the simple velar nasal [ŋ]. Similarly, ny represents the palatal nasal [ȵ]. The other consonants which are followed by y (namely by, gy and my) are palatalized consonants, and those which are followed by v (gv and ngv) are labialized consonants. Each of the Zhuang initials is paired up below with the IPA symbol which shows how that initial is pronounced. (The standard pronunciation of by is a bilabial stop followed by a medial [j], but in some dialects it is realized as a palatal affricate.)

« Reply #5on: November 1, 2008, 14:33 »
Example
Gloss
Zhuang
initial
IPA
bi
"year"
b
p
mbanj
"village"
mb
ʔb
miz
"have"
m
m
fa
"a cover"
f
f
vaiq
"quickly"
v
w
da
"eye"
d
t
ndei
"good"
nd
ʔd
na
"thick"
n
n
sam
"three"
s
θ
lan
"grandchild"
l
l
ga
"leg"
g
k
gvaq
"pass through"
gv
kw
ngah
"greed"
ng
ŋ
haq
"marry"
h
h
ra
"look for"
r
ɤ
caj
"wait"
c
ɕ
youq
"located at"
y
j
nyinz
"tendon"
ny
ȵ
ngviz
"marrow"
ngv
ŋw
bya
"mountain"
by
pj
gyaj
"rice seedlings"
gy
kj
myaiz
"saliva"
my
mj

Offline captain Accompong

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  • too bad
    • гэнго-тян
« Reply #6on: November 9, 2008, 03:12 »
а можно запостить общие сведения об этом языке:
где на нем говорят?
и в каком отношении он находится к китайскому (мандаринскому)?
племя эторо негодуе...

Offline Nevik Xukxo

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« Reply #7on: November 15, 2008, 23:52 »
а можно запостить общие сведения об этом языке:
где на нем говорят?
и в каком отношении он находится к китайскому (мандаринскому)?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhuang_language да хотя бы тут почитайте, что это за зверь такой...   ::)

Offline antbez

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« Reply #8on: November 16, 2008, 18:10 »
Я правильно помню, что он родственен тайскому?
Quae medicamenta non sanant, ferrum sanat, quae ferrum non sanat, ignis sanat.

Offline poj_ntxo

  • Posts: 103
« Reply #9on: September 13, 2009, 22:17 »
очерки чжуанского закончились?
молиться, поститься, слушать радио "радонеж"

Offline злой

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  • Gender: Male
« Reply #10on: September 13, 2009, 22:25 »
Стараниями некоторых товарищей, не будем показывать на них пальцем, но они поймут, о ком идет речь, и к моему (думаю, не только моему) глубочайшему сожалению, Мади ушел с форума.
Телевизор сильнее холодильника

Offline poj_ntxo

  • Posts: 103
« Reply #11on: September 14, 2009, 22:18 »
нда, действительно грустно.  :(
молиться, поститься, слушать радио "радонеж"

Offline Kaiyr

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« Reply #12on: August 7, 2018, 08:03 »
Почему Гуанси-Чжуанский АР включает районы где чжуан меньше 1%? В частности юго-восток этой автономии. Там жили чжуаны но стали ханьцами? или специально включили что бы меньше доля чжуан было? или как было так и оставили по традиции? (wiki/vi) Tiếng_Nùng#/media/File:TNZB2.png

Offline Nevik Xukxo

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« Reply #13on: August 7, 2018, 19:28 »
Почему Гуанси-Чжуанский АР включает районы где чжуан меньше 1%?
Надо копаться в истории региона.
(wiki/en) History_of_the_administrative_divisions_of_China_before_1912
Я так понял, оно основано в основном на более старой провинции Гуанси.

 

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