Author Topic: Частица 的  (Read 3051 times)

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Offline Joris

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« on: December 10, 2011, 15:13 »
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The function of 的, relative clauses and noun clauses
A basic rule to remember about the use of 的 (de) is that a 的 phrase, in most cases, is used attributively. This means that it appears before a noun or a noun phrase, even thought the noun or the noun phrase sometimes is omitted from the sentence.

1. Possessive 的
的 can be used to indicate possession.
王先生的新房子很大。
Wáng xiānsheng de xīn fángzi hěn dà.
Mr. Wangs new house is big.

我的车坏了。
Wǒde chē huài le.
My car has broken down.

这是谁的书?
Zhè shì shéi de shū?
Whose book is this.

(a) When possessive 的 can be omitted
After a personal pronoun (你, 我, 他/她 etc.), 的 is frequently omitted, especially in casual speech, when what follows is a family member. This rule can also apply to nouns such as 家 (jiā) and 女朋友 (nǚ pèngyou)/ 男朋友 (nán péngyou).
我家有三个卧室;我爸妈的卧室最大,我弟弟的最小。
Wǒ jiā yǒu sān ge wòshì; wǒ bàmā de wòshì zuì dà, wǒ dìdi de zuì xiǎo.
My house has three bedrooms; my parents’ room is the biggest, my younger brother’s is the smallest.

我女朋友的哥哥是我妹妹的男朋友。
Wǒ nǚ péngyou de gēge shì wǒ mèimei de nán péngyou.
My girlfriend’s older brother is my younger sister’s boyfriend.

(b) English vs. Chinese word order
In English, the word ‘of’ is sometimes used in a sentence whose Chinese counterpart uses 的. It is important to note the difference in word order between English and Chinese in such sentences.
The colour of this skirt is ugly.
这条裙子的颜色不好看。Zhè tiáo qúnzi de yánsè bù hǎokàn.

The author of this book is a good friend of mine.
这本书的作者是我的好朋友。Zhè běn shū de zuòzhě shì wǒde hǎo péngyou.

The boyfriend of my younger sister is a university student.
我妹妹的男朋友是大学生。Wǒ mèimei de nán péngyou shì dàxuéshēng.

The younger sister of my boyfriend is a university student.
我男朋友的妹妹是大学生。Wǒ nán péngyou de mèimei shì dàxuéshēng.

(c) Location phrases with possessive 的
In English, the phrase ‘in/at/on + location’ should sometimes be thought as a 的 phrase in Chinese when such a phrase is used to modify a noun or a noun phrase. To translate such an English phrase into a prepositional phrase with 在 (zài) is a common mistake made by learners of Chinese whose native language is English.
Students at Beijing University are all good students.
北京大学的学生都是很好的学生。Běijīng Dàxué de xuèsheng dōu shì hěn hǎo de xuésheng.
(Incorrect: 学生在北京大学都是很好的学生。)

Wow! The scenery here is really beautiful!
哇!这里的风景真美啊!Wà! Zhèli de fēngjǐng zhēn měi a!
(Incorrect: 哇!风景在这里真美啊!)

(d) Omission of a noun after 的
When the context is clear, the noun after a possessive 的 can be, as frequently is, omitted.
王:这本书是谁的?
Wáng: Zhè běn shū shì shéi de?
李:不是我的;可能是张文的
Lǐ: Bú shì wǒde; kěnéng shì Zhāng Wén de.
Wang: Whose book is this? (=To whom does this book belong?)
Li: It’s not mine; it’s probably Zhang Wen’s.
yóó' aninááh

« Reply #1on: June 24, 2012, 00:36 »
http://lingvowiki.info/w/Функция_的,_определительные_и_именные_придаточные
yóó' aninááh

 

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