Author Topic: 11 типов вопросов  (Read 4456 times)

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Offline Joris

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« on: October 21, 2011, 13:59 »
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The eleven types of questions in Chinese
Questions can be converted from statements without a change of word order. Basically, a question can be formed by (i) adding a modal particle at the end of the statement or (ii) replacing the part that indicates the answer in the statement with an interrogative pronoun. Based on the these two rules, as well as another type of question termed the 'alternative question' using 还是 (háishì), eleven types of question can be formed in Chinese.
Question typeExample
1.Questions with the modal particle 马你是中国人吗?
Nǐ shì Zhōngguó rén ma?
Are you Chinese?
2.Questions with the modal particle 呢1.我是中国人,你呢?
  Wǒ shì Zhōngguó rén, nǐ ne?
  I am Chinese. How about you?
2.我的书呢?
  Wǒ de shū ne?
  Where is (what happened to) my book?
3.Questions with the modal particle 吧你也是中国人吧?
Nǐ yě shì Zhōngguó rén ba?
You must also be Chinese, aren’t you?
4.Questions with the modal particle 了你们都姓李,那你们是姐妹了?
Nǐmen dōu xìng Lǐ, nà nǐmen shì jiěmèi le?
Both of you have the same last name, Li, then you must be sisters, aren’t you?
5.Affirmative-negative questions你是不是中国人?
Nǐ shì bú shì Zhōngguó rén?
Are you (or are you not) Chinese?
6.Affirmative-negative questions:
  verb (or a verb phrase)+(了)+没有
你吃饭了没有?
Nǐ chī fàn le méiyǒu?
Have you eaten (lunch/dinner)?
7.Alternative question (using 还是)你想喝茶还是喝咖啡?
Nǐ xiǎng hē chá háishì hē kāfēi?
Do you want to drink tea or coffee?
8.Tag question你是中国人,对不对?
Nǐ shì Zhōngguó rén, duì bú duì?
You are Chinese, right?
9.Questions with interrogative pronouns你叫什么名字?
Nǐ jiào shénme míngzi?
What is your name?
10.Rhetorical questions我这么忙,怎么有时间出去玩?
Wǒ zhème máng, zěnme yǒu shíjiān chū qù wán?
I am so busy, how do I have time to go out and have fun?
11.Unmarked questions你才写了五分钟,就写完了?
Nǐ cái xiě le wǔ fēnzhōng, jiù xiě wán le?
You only spent five minutes writing it, and you are done?
yóó' aninááh

« Reply #1on: October 21, 2011, 14:00 »
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1. Questions with the modal particle 吗
Without a specific context, this type of question is used to elicit a yes-or-no answer.
张:你是老师?
Zhāng: Nǐ shì lǎoshī ma?
王:我不是老师,我是学生。
Wáng: Wǒ bú shì lǎoshī, wǒ shì xuésheng.
Zhang: Are you a teacher?
Wang: I am not a teacher, I am a student.

老师:你们有问题?
Lǎoshī: Nǐmen yǒu wèntí ma?
丁:我有。
Dīng: Wǒ yǒu.
李:我没有。
Lǐ: Wǒ méi yǒu.
Teacher: Do you (pl.) have questions?
Ding: I do.
Li: I don’t.

(a) Positive questions
Frequently 吗 is used (instead of affirmative-negative questions) when the person asking the question expects the answer to be ‘yes’.

(Situation: Seeing a friend getting out of a new car, you ask him if he has just bought a new car.)
你买新车了?(An affirmative-negative question (你买新车了没有?) would not be proper in this context since there is a strong indication that he did.)
Nǐ mǎi xīn chē le ma?
Did you buy a new car? (You bought a new car?)

(b) Negative questions
When the person asking the question expects the answer to be ‘no’, 吗 is used at the end of a negative statement to make it a negative question.
(Situation: Seeing Wang refusing to eat spinach, Li has the impression that Wang does not like spinach.)
李:你不喜欢吃菠菜?
Lǐ: Nǐ bù xǐhuan chī bōcài ma?
王: (对),(我)不喜欢。
Wang: (Duì), (wǒ) bù xǐhuan.
Li: You don’t like spinach?
Wang: (That’s right.) I don’t like it.

---

吗 is used to ask a yes-no question. It is sometimes interchangeable with an affirmative-negative question.
你学了两年中文,有中文名字?(=有没有中文名字?)
Nǐ xué le liǎng nián Zhōngwén, yǒu Zhōngwén míngzì ma?
You have studied Chinese for two years. Do you have a Chinese name.

(a) Use 吗 in questions with adverbs
When the question have an adverb, such as 也 (yě),都 (dōu),已经 (yǐjīng), etc., only 吗 can be used.
你们同学都有中文名字?(It is incorrectly to say 你们同学都有没有中文名字?)
Nǐmen tóngxué dōu yǒu Zhōngwén míngzì ma?
Do all of your classmates have Chinese names?

(b) Use 吗 in questions when one has an expectation of the answer
王:这些是谁的书?
Wáng: Zhèxiē shì shéi de shū?
张:都是我爸爸的。
Zhāng: Dōu shì wǒ bàba de.
王:你爸爸是医生?
Wáng: Nǐ bàba shì yīshēng ma? (你爸爸是不是医生?would not be the best choice in this situation since Wang expects the answer to be ‘yes’.)
Wang: Whose books are these?
Zhang: They are my father’s.
Wang: Is your father a doctor?

(Situation: A telephone conversation.)
张:请问,王先生在家?(=王先生在不在家?)
Zhāng: Qǐngwèn, Wáng xiānsheng zài jiā ma?
王太太:他在睡觉,有事?(有没有事?would not be the best choice in this case.)
Wáng tàitai: Tā zài shuìjiào, yǒu shì ma?
Zhang: May I ask, is Mr. Wang home?
Mrs. Wang: He is sleeping. Do you have anything (important)?

(Situation: A student sleeps in class.)
老师:小王,你为什么在睡觉?你昨天晚上没有睡觉?(你昨天晚上有没有睡觉?or 你昨天晚上睡觉了没有?would not be proper in this context.)
Lǎoshī: Xiǎo Wáng, nǐ wèishénme zài shuìjiào? Nǐ zuótiān wǎnshang méi yǒu shuìjiào ma?
小李:老师,您不知道?小王家昨天晚上闹了一场火灾。(您知不知道?would not be proper in this context.)
Xiǎo Lǐ: Lǎoshī, nín bù zhīdao? Xiǎo Wáng jiā zuótiān nào le yìchǎng huǒzāi.
Teacher: Xiao Wang, why are you sleeping? Did you not sleep last night?
Xiao Li: Sir, didn’t you know that there was a fire at Xiao Wang’s house last night?
yóó' aninááh

« Reply #2on: October 21, 2011, 14:01 »
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2. Questions with the modal particle 呢
呢 does not only appear in questions. When it does appear in questions, it usually follows an elliptical sentence with the part that is understood being omitted. Therefore, it is only used in context.

(a) Asking the same question without repeating it
王:你在哪里工作?
Wáng: Nǐ zài nǎlǐ gōngzuò?
李:在中国银行。你?(=你在哪里工作?)
Lǐ: Zài Zhōngguó Yínháng. Nǐ ne?
Wang: Where do you work?
Li: At the Bank of China. How about you? (Meaning: Where do you work?)

(b) Omitting the predicate
The predicate can be omitted from a question if it is understood.
八的一半是四,六的一半是?(六的一半是多少?)
Bā de yí bàn shì sì, liù de yí bàn ne? (=Liù de yí bàn shì duōshao?)
Half of eight is four; what about half of six? (Meaning: What is half of six?)
老师:这个问题,李明张力都会回答。王安,你?(=你会不会回答?)
Lǎoshī: Zhè ge wèntí, Lǐ Míng, Zhāng Lì dōu huì huídá. Wáng Ān, nǐ ne? (=Nǐ huì bú huì huídá?)
Teahcer: Both Li Ming and Zhang Li can answer this question. Wang An, how about you? (Meaning: Wang An, can you answer it?)

(c) Asking about ‘whereabouts’
When one does not see who or what one is expecting to see, 呢 is used to ask ‘what happened to  ?’ or ‘where did  go?’.
-> Is should be noted that sometimes this question is translated as ‘where is  ?’. However, it is different from ……在哪里?, which is a question about ‘location’ of something, not its ‘whereabouts’.

(Situation: Mei Ying and her boyfriend are always seen together. But today you have bumped into her in the cinema and her boyfriend is not with her.)
梅英,你一个人来看电影吗?你男朋友?
Méi Yīng, nǐ yí gè rén lái kàn diànyǐng ma? Nǐ nán péngyou ne?
Mei Ying, you came to see the movie by yourself? Where is your boyfriend? (=What happened to him?)

(Situation: You are back in a town you left years ago. You are standing in front of the shop which used to be your favourite coffee shop, but now it’s something else.)
咦,咖啡馆?(咦 is an interjection, indicating curiosity or puzzlement.)
Yí, kāfēiguǎn ne?
Hey, where is the coffee shop? (What happened to the coffee shop? Where did the coffee shop go?)

To ask the physical location of someone or something, use 在哪里?
(Situation: You are new in town and you ask someone where the post office is.)
请问,邮局在哪里?
Qǐng wèn, yóujú zài nǎlǐ?
Excuse me. Where is the post office?

---

The use of 呢.
(a) Asking a question in context with 呢
呢 is used to either ask a previously asked question without repeating it or to ask a question when the context clearly indicates what the question is.
老师:小王,这是什么字?
Lǎoshī: Xiǎo Wáng, zhè shì shénme zì?
王:那是“大”字。
Wáng: Nà shì ‘dà’zì.
老师:对,很好!这个?(=这个是什么字?)
Lǎoshī: Duì, hěn hǎo! Zhè ge ne? (Zhè ge shì shénme zì?)
王:我不知道。
Wáng: Wǒ bù zhīdao.
老师:小王不认识这个字;小李,你?(=你认识不认这个字?)
Lǎoshī: Xiǎo Wáng bú rènshi zhè ge zì; Xiǎo Lǐ, nǐ ne? (Nǐ rènshi bú rènshi zhè ge zì?)
Teacher: Xiao Wang, what character is this?
Wang: That is the character ‘big’.
Teacher: Correct, good! How about this one? (=What character is this one?)
Wang: I don’t know.
Teacher: Xiao Wang does not recognize this character. Xiao Li, how about you? (Xiao Li, do you recognize this character?)

(b) 如果/要是……呢?’what if …?’
如果/要是……呢 is used to ask ‘what if’
职员:经理,今年的迎新会,要办什么活动?
Zhíyuán: Jīnglǐ, jīnnián de yíngxīn huì, yào bàn shénme huódòng?
经理:室外烤肉。
Jīnglǐ: Shìwài kǎoròu.
职员:如果小雨?
Zhíyuán: Rúguǒ xiàyǔ ne?
Staff: Manager, what kind of activity are we going to have for this year’s welcome party?
Manager: An outdoor BBQ.
Staff: What if it rains?

(c) Asking about ‘whereabouts’ with 呢
呢 can be used to ask about ‘whereabouts’. When you expect to see something or somebody, but what you expect to see is not there, you can use 呢 to ask ‘what has happened to…?’.
Although such a phrase is sometimes translated into ‘where is…?’ its connotation is different form a question with 哪里, which is used to ask the physical location of somebody or something.

(Situation: Xiao Wang and his girlfriend are nearly always together, but today you ran into him outside the cinema and he was alone).
你:小王!怎么今天一个人来看电影?你女朋友?(It would not be 你女朋友在哪里? since the real meaning of the question is ‘why is she not with you?’)
Nǐ: Xiǎo Wáng! Zěnme jīntiān yí ge lái kàn diànyǐng? Nǐ nǚ péngyou ne?
小王:她今天不太舒服。
Xiǎo Wáng: Tā jīntiān bú tài shūfu.
You: Xiao Wang! How did you come to the movie by yourself today? Where is your girlfriend?
Xiao Wang: She is not feeling well today.

(Situation: You are new in town and want to know where the library and the Bank of China are.)
你:请问,图书馆在哪里?
Nǐ: Qǐngwèn, túshūguǎn zài nǎli?
当地人:前面那栋白色的大楼就是图书馆。
Dāngdì rén: Qiánmiàn nà dòng báisè de dà lóu jiù shì túshūguǎn.
你:谢谢。中国银行?(=中国银行在哪里?)
Nǐ: Xièxie. Zhōngguó yínháng ne? (Zhōngguó yínháng zài nǎli?)
当地人:本市没有中国银行。
Dāngdì rén: Běn shì méiyǒu Zhōngguó yínháng.
You: Excuse me. Where is the library?
Local person: That white building up ahead is the library.
You: What about the Bank of China?
Local person: There is no Bank of China in this city.

(Situation: You have returned to the town you left years ago and you are standing in front of the place you your favourite coffee shop used to be. Now it’s something else.)
你:我以前常去的那家咖啡馆?
Nǐ: Wǒ yǐqián cháng qù de nà jiā kāfēiguǎn ne?
当地的朋友:那家咖啡馆已经搬走了。
Dāngdì de péngyou: Nà jiā kāfēiguǎn yǐjīng bān zǒu le.
你:是吗?搬到哪里了?
Nǐ: Shì ma? Bān dào nǎli le?
You: What happened to the coffee shop that I often used to go?
Local friend: That coffee shop has moved.
You: Is that so? Where did it moved to?

(d) Softening the tone of a question with 呢
呢 can be used at the end of the question (other than a 吗 question) to soften the tone and make the question sound less harsh or blunt. In this case, 呢 does not have a grammatical function; its use is optional.
李小姐:王先生,真对不起,明天的约会,我不能来了。
Lǐ xiǎojiě: Wáng xiānsheng, zhēn duìbuqǐ, míngtiān de yuēhuì, wǒ bù néng lái le.
王先生:哦?为什么?(Without 呢, the utterance sounds harsh.)
Wáng xiānsheng: Ò? Wèishénme ne?
Miss Li: Mr. Wang, I’m really sorry, I can’t come to our date tomorrow.
Mr. Wang: Oh? Why’s that?

你不是说六点就会回家吗?怎么现在才回来?(Without 呢,the question may sound like an accusation.)
Nǐ bú shì shuō liù diǎn jiù huí jiā ma? Zěnme xiànzài cái huílai ne?
Didn’t you say you would be home by 6 o’clock? How come you came back now?

(e) 还……呢!
An optional 呢 is often used when the sentence has 还 in it, although its connotation is indefinable.
李太太:你儿子大学毕业了没有?
Lǐ tàitai: Nǐ érzi dàxué bìyè le méiyǒu?
张太太:没有!他有两年!你儿子?(=你儿子大学毕业了吗?)
Zhāng tàitai: Hái méiyǒu ne! Tā hái yǒu liǎng nián ne! Nǐ érzi ne? (=Nǐ érzi dàxué bìyè le ma?)
李太太:我儿子在上高中!
Lǐ tàitai: Wǒ érzi hái zài shàng gāozhōng ne!
Mrs. Li: Has your son graduated from university?
Mrs. Zhang: Not yet. He still has two years. How about your son?
Mrs. Li: My son is still in high school.

王先生:这个房子不错,够大!五个卧房,三个洗手间。
Wáng xiānsheng: Zhè ge fángzi bú cuò, gòu dà! Wǔ ge wòfáng, sān ge xǐshǒujiān.
房地产商:您看,后面还有一个大花园!
Fángdìchǎn shāng: Nín kàn, hòumiàn hái yǒu yí ge dà huāyuán ne!
Mr. Wang: This house is not bad, big enough! Five bedrooms and three bathrooms.
Property salesman: Look! There is also a big garden behind it!

(f) Using 呢 with the progressive aspect
An optional 呢 can be used when the sentence indicates an action in progress.
妈妈:小明,怎么还不去洗碗?你在做什么?
Māma: Xiǎomíng, Zěnme hái bú qù xǐ wǎn? Nǐ zài zuò shénme?
爸爸:他在写功课。我去洗吧。
Bàba: Tā zài xiě gōngkè. Wǒ qù xǐ ba.
Mother: Xiaoming, how come you still have not washed the dishes? What are you doing?
Father: He is doing his homework. Let me go do the dishes.

(Situation: You have a date with your girlfriend. She is waiting for you to pick her up at her house. You arrive at her house, but her younger brother is the one who opens the door.)
你:你好!你姐姐?(呢 in this question is asking the ‘whereabouts’ of his older sister, not her actual physical location, since you expected to see her.)
Nǐ: Nǐ hǎo! Nǐ jiějie ne?
弟弟:她在化妆!
Dìdi: Tā zài huàzhuāng ne!
You: Hello! Where is your sister?
Little brother: She is putting on make-up.
yóó' aninááh

« Reply #3on: December 10, 2011, 15:06 »
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3. Questions with the modal particle 吧
A question with 吧 indicates that the speaker is almost certain of the situation, but not 100% sure. Frequently, adverbs such as 一定 (yídìng ‘definitely’) and 大概 (dàgài ‘probably’) can be used in such a question, but 吧 alone can serve the function of indicating near certainty.

(a) 吧! or 吧?
It is acceptable to use an exclamation mark instead of a question mark after 吧.
你工作了一整天,(一定)累了!
Nǐ gōngzuò le yì zhěngtiān, (yídìng) lèi le ba!
Your worked all the day; you must be tired, aren’t you?

这本书上写着你的名字,是你的?
Zhè běn shū shàng xiě zhe nǐde míngzi, shì nǐde ba?
This book has your name written in it. It must be yours, isn’t it?

(b) 吗 or 吧?
Although questions with 吗 and 吧 both indicate that the speaker has made an assumption of the situation and has an expectation as to what the answer will be, 吧 shows a stronger assumption or expectation than 吗.
(Situation: Someone has bought several French textbooks and two French dictionaries at a bookshop. The cashier could ask any of the following.)
你是学法文的?
Nǐ shì xué Fǎwén de ba? (Near certainty.)
You must be studying French, aren’t you?
你是学法文的?
Nǐ shì xué Fǎwén de ma? (Expecting ‘yes’ to be answered.)
Are you studying French?
你是不是学法文的?
Nǐ shì bú shì xué Fǎwén de? (No assumption.)
Are you (or are you not) studying French?
yóó' aninááh

« Reply #4on: December 10, 2011, 15:07 »
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4. Questions with the modal particle 了
了 in this type of question is sometimes represented by other characters with the similar pronunciations, such as 咯 (lo) or 啰 (lo). Such a question is used to make inferences about a situation; therefore, an optional 那/那么 (nà/nàme ‘in that case’) is frequently used. In this type of questions either a question mark or a full stop can be used.
李:那个女孩跟你很象,她是谁?
Lǐ: Nà ge nǚhái gēn nǐ hěn xiàng, tā shì shéi?
王:我跟她同姓,可是她不是我姐姐。
Wáng: Wǒ gēn tā tong xìng, kěshì tā bú shì wǒ jiějie.
李:那他是你妹妹?
Lǐ: Nà tā shì nǐ mèimei le?
Li: That girl looks very much like you. Who is she?
Wang: We have the same last name, but she is not my older sister.
Li: Then (in that case) she must be your younger sister?

李:我们班,男的都是美国人,女的都是英国人。
Lǐ: Wǒmen bān, nán de dōu shì Měiguó rén, nǚ de dōu shì Yīngguó rén.
张:那么史密斯先生是美国人?
Zhāng: Nàme Shǐmìsī xiānsheng shì Měiguó rén le?
Li: In our class, all the males are American and all the females are British.
Zhang: In that case, Mr. Smith must be American.

王太太:我儿子考上了最好的大学。
Wáng tàitai: Wǒ érzi kǎo shàng zuì hǎo de dàxué.
李太太:那你现在一定很高兴
Lǐ tàitai: Nà nǐ xiànzài yídìng hěn gāoxìng lo.
Mrs. Wang: My son has passed the entrance exam into the best university.
Mrs. Li: Then you must be happy now.
yóó' aninááh

« Reply #5on: June 21, 2012, 04:18 »
http://wiki.lingvoforum.net/w/11_типов_вопросов_в_китайском_языке
yóó' aninááh

 

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